Consider this scenario: you’re a law enforcement officer in a SWAT unit, facing a high-risk situation where every moment is precious. The performance of your equipment, particularly your firearm’s sighting system, could be the deciding factor between a successful operation and a disastrous one.
Red dot sights and your firearm’s built-in iron sights can be used. Each of these optics comes with its own set of advantages and drawbacks, displaying marked differences in terms of ease of use, precision, and versatility.
Red dots provide the benefit of swift target acquisition and notably enhanced accuracy in low-light situations. Traditional iron sights are appreciated for their steadfast dependability and robustness.
Let’s discuss more of these sights.
What are Red Dot Optics and Iron Sights?
Red dot optics and iron sights are two distinct sighting systems utilized in firearms, with each offering unique advantages for improving accuracy and target acquisition speed.
What are Red Dot Sights?
Red dot sights are non-magnifying optics that provide a simple and intuitive aiming solution for firearms. A red dot sight’s design centers around a reflective spherical mirror and a solid-state light-emitting diode (LED) emitter inside the housing. This LED, through an aperture, produces a beam of light—usually red—onto a specially coated lens. The lens is coated with a partially reflective material that reflects the LED light in the form of a red dot back toward the shooter’s eye.
This red dot, called a reticle, is the aimpoint. The shooter superimposes the red dot on the target. Given the right range, conditions, and training, the bullet will hit the target after the trigger is pulled.
What are Iron Sights?
Traditional iron sights are basic aiming devices composed of metal components, typically built-in on firearms. Iron sights do not require batteries or external power sources. They usually consist of two main components: the front and rear sights.
The front sight is a post or blade located near the end of the firearm’s muzzle. It can take different shapes such as a square post or a tapered blade. The top of the front sight is the point of focus for the shooter.
The rear sight is positioned closer to the shooter’s eye. It consists of a notch or aperture through which the front sight is aligned. The rear sight may have a horizontal or vertical notch, or it can be a U-shaped aperture.
When using iron sights, the shooter aligns the front sight with the rear sight. Proper alignment involves centering the front sight within the notch or aperture of the rear sight. The aligned sights, along with the target, form a “sight picture.” The shooter adjusts the alignment until the top of the front sight is level with the top of the rear sight and centered within the notch or aperture.
The point where the top of the front sight aligns with the target represents the projected point of impact. For example, if the top of the front sight is aligned with the center of the target, the bullet should impact the target at that point.
The decision between these two sight types largely hinges on individual needs and shooting styles. For individuals in high-pressure situations where speed is of the essence, a red dot sight could be more advantageous. For those who value reliability and tradition, iron sights may be more appealing.
Pros and Cons of Red Dot Optics in Tactical Operations
Using red dot optics in tactical operations has its benefits and drawbacks. Let’s discuss some of them:
Pros of Red Dot Optics in Tactical Operations
- Rapid Target Acquisition: Red dot optical sights are designed to allow shooters to aim quickly and intuitively. The reticle allows for faster sight alignment and faster target acquisition, which is crucial in dynamic and rapidly evolving tactical situations.
- Both Eyes Open Shooting: With a red dot, the individual can shoot with both eyes open. This enhances his situational awareness of both the target and his surroundings in his peripheral vision.
- Versatility Across Platforms: Red dot optics can be mounted on pistols, rifles, shotguns, and handguns. This versatility allows operators to use a consistent aiming system across different weapon systems.
- Effective in Low-Light Conditions: Many red dot optics offer adjustable brightness settings, making them effective in low-light or nighttime operations. The illuminated reticle ensures visibility in challenging lighting environments.
- Reduced Parallax Effect: Red dot optics are parallax-free. The point of impact remains consistent regardless of the shooter’s eye position.
- Integration with Night Vision Devices: Some red dot optics are compatible with night vision devices, allowing operators to maintain accuracy during nighttime operations.
- Straightforward Aiming: Operators are usually under a lot of stress in tactical operations. Red dot optics alleviate this by simplifying the aiming process, allowing the operator to simply aim and shoot.
- Durable Construction: Many red dot optics are built to withstand harsh conditions, featuring rugged construction and shock-resistant designs.
Cons of Red Dot Optics in Tactical Operations
- Battery Dependency: Red dot optics rely on batteries to power the illuminated reticle. Battery failure can occur, which makes the red dot useless.
- Limited Magnification: Traditional red dot optics provide 1x magnification, limiting their effectiveness at longer distances. For longer ranges, magnified optics are preferred.
- Susceptibility to Environmental Conditions: Red dot optics with exposed lenses may be susceptible to environmental conditions like rain, snow, or dust.
- Cost: High-quality red dot optics can be expensive, and their cost may be a consideration for budget-conscious agencies or operators.
- Vulnerability to Impact: While durable, red dot optics can be vulnerable to impact or rough handling. Protective measures, such as lens covers or housing designs, can mitigate this risk.
Pros and Cons of Iron Sights in Tactical Operations
Iron sights offer reliability, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness in tactical operations. However, they may have limitations in terms of precision, target acquisition speed, and low-light performance when compared to modern optics.
Pros of Iron Sights in Tactical Operations
- Reliability: Iron sights are mechanical and do not rely on batteries or electronics. They are always ready for use, eliminating concerns about power failure during critical moments.
- Durability: Traditional iron sights are durable and can withstand harsh conditions, including extreme temperatures, rain, and dust. They are less prone to damage from impact or rough handling.
- Cost-Effectiveness: Iron sights are free; they’re built into the firearm. Even if you purchase aftermarket iron sights and upgrades, you’ll save more money than when you purchase red dots.
- Simple and Intuitive: Iron sights have a straightforward design that is easy to understand and use. They are intuitive for shooters.
- Versatility: Iron sights are almost always incorporated in firearms such as rifles, shotguns, and handguns.
- Low Profile: Iron sights have a low profile, which can be advantageous for maintaining a streamlined and unobstructed view, especially when using cover or in confined spaces.
Cons of Iron Sights in Tactical Operations
- Limited Precision: Iron sights may provide limited precision, especially at longer distances. Shooters may find it challenging to achieve the same level of accuracy as with magnified optics.
- Slower Target Acquisition: In comparison to red dot optics, iron sights require a slightly longer time for target acquisition.
- Dependence on Light Conditions: Iron sights can be less effective in low-light conditions or when visibility is compromised. The lack of illuminated reticles may hinder aiming in these scenarios. Fiber optic dots can somewhat alleviate this problem.
- Difficulties for Those with Eyesight Problems: Shooters with eyesight problems may experience challenges with focusing on traditional iron sights.
- Not Ideal for Close-Quarters Combat (CQC): In close-quarters combat scenarios, where rapid target acquisition is crucial, iron sights may be less efficient compared to red dot optics.
- Lack of Built-In Range Finding: Iron sights lack built-in features for range estimation. Shooters must rely on external methods or memorization for distance calculations.
- Challenges with Moving Targets: Engaging moving targets may be more challenging with iron sights, as they lack the quick target acquisition benefits provided by red dot optics.
Can Red Dot Optics and Iron Sights Be Used Together?
You can get the best of both worlds! Red dot optics and iron sights can be used together; in fact, this is a common setup on many firearms. This combination is often referred to as “co-witnessing.” Co-witnessing allows shooters to have the benefits of both systems, providing redundancy and flexibility in different shooting scenarios. There are two primary types of co-witnessing:
- Lower 1/3 Co-Witness: In this configuration, the red dot sight’s reticle aligns with the top of the front sight post. This allows the shooter to see both the red dot and the iron sights in the lower portion of the optic’s field of view. The lower 1/3 co-witness is often preferred as it provides a more unobstructed view of the target through the optic.
- Absolute Co-Witness: In an absolute co-witness setup, the red dot sight’s reticle aligns precisely with the top of the front sight post. This means that the iron sights and the red dot appear at the same height when looking through the optic. While this setup can be effective, some shooters find it can obscure the lower portion of the sight picture.
Benefits of Co-Witnessing
- Redundancy: If the red dot optic becomes damaged or malfunctions or if it runs out of battery, the shooter can quickly transition to using the iron sights without removing the optic.
- Flexibility in Sight Options: Co-witnessing allows shooters to choose between the speed and ease of use provided by the red dot sight for close-quarters engagements and the precision of iron sights for longer-range shots.
- Training Consistency: For shooters transitioning between different firearms with iron sights and those with red dot optics, co-witnessing provides a consistent sight picture. This can be beneficial for training and muscle memory.
- Adaptability to Changing Conditions: Co-witnessing allows shooters to adapt quickly to changing conditions, such as shifts in lighting or the need for a faster or more precise aiming solution.
How to Set Up Co-Witnessing
- Mounting the Red Dot Optic: Properly mount the red dot sight on the firearm using a suitable mount. Ensure the mount is secure and aligned correctly.
- Choosing the Co-Witness Height: Select either a lower 1/3 co-witness or an absolute co-witness height based on personal preference and shooting requirements.
- Adjusting Iron Sights: If necessary, adjust the iron sights to co-witness with the red dot sight. This ensures that the point of impact aligns correctly with the point of aim.
- Zeroing: Zero both the red dot sight and the iron sights to the desired point of impact. This ensures that the shooter can transition seamlessly between the two sighting systems.
- Testing and Training: Conduct tests and training drills to ensure the co-witnessed setup functions as intended. Practice transitioning between the red dot sight and iron sights to build familiarity and proficiency.
Tactical operations require a variety of options when it comes to sighting systems. Red dot optics and the iron sights bring down their own set of advantages and possible drawbacks. In some instances, you may find it beneficial to use both of them together, offering enhanced adaptability.
Understand that the sight you choose can greatly influence your operational effectiveness. With proper and consistent training, you can use both sights to your advantage.